Summer Schooll 2011

The place to discuss particle physics
Post Reply
RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Sat Jul 09, 2011 3:30 pm

With the successful launch of STS135 yesterday my work in data processing for shuttle program is coming to a close. It was not a particularly easy countdown but the highly professional team performed extremely well including that exciting t-31 second hold. I decided that it might to help full to other to try a report on the summer school lectures for 2011. If someone who is actually at summer school would like to help come on board.

On a personal note the generic presentation programs and advisory system I fathered and developed in my time at KSC have great similarity to the work at CERN. We have been on a 20 year journey to make all data available to everyone on the program everywhere in real-time. These tool provide a vast array of plotting, Display, Computing, and distribution systems. These tools are now used in an advisory function in the KSC and JSC control rooms and by the hundreds of non-firing room support personal. I was happy to have completed the prototype for the generic tool for a last class of data for it to be in the firing room for this launch. After the launch we had a BBQ for everyone at KSC and to everyone have surprised Jimmy Buffet, who had been a guest for the launch, got on the stage in the VAB and performed a song.

http://indico.cern.ch/scripts/SSLPdispl ... &nbweeks=8

I have over the last year view most of the lectures from the past years in a process that was not very organized. They have given me a vast amount of insight in the development in physic since me degree many years ago. This was in part because of the way the lectures were put together more for scheduling of the presenter then logical order.

This year they have gone to great length to provide a logical progression for of the material. I will say that already this feels much easier to fellow.

Statistics (Experimental Physics) Glen Cowan, (Royal Holloway College U. of London)

The four lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses

Statistics (Experimental Physics) (1/4)

This is a very good place to start Dr. Cowan who has present in the past does a very good job of introducing the concepts of physic. The fundamentals are provided at a level that anyone can fellow. However he still manages to provide enough information to leave the novice behind and satisfy master’s degree student. The first lecture focuses on probability, distribution, Random variable and Bayes’ theorem. I came away with a good understanding of what he was talking about.

Recommended For those interested in how thing are calculated.

Jean - Pierre Derendinger (A. Einstein Inst. f. Fund. Phys., ITP U. of Bern, Switzerland) Concepts in Particle Physics (Theoretical Particle Physics)

These lectures provide an introduction to the concepts and the theoretical tools used in the description of elementary particle interactions (Standard Model and extensions). Keywords are: fundamental interactions, quantum fields, symmetries and gauge symmetries, perturbation theory and observables, physical scales. These lectures should be followed in parallel with the Standard Model course.

Concepts in Particle Physics ( 1/5)

As the Prerequisite state this is a lecture target at persons with a verily heavy background. I think Dr. Derendinger has sold himself short by making it appear that these restrictions apply. The beginner can get a great deal out of these lectures. As he states at the beginning the material, he cycles between easy and hard. For the easy stuff he is spot on and for the more advance as even he has to admit some topic will require a course that lasted a year to understand completely. This first lecture provides a strong foundation for the understanding of the development of the theoretical field of particle physics. It introduces the standard model. His development of Quantum field theory may lose some but there was a real payoff on slide 24 for me that cause the light blue to go on for me even after see the subject presented in many of the past year lectures.

Recommended For those interested in basic theory with some previous background in physic.

Some closing comments. The sound quality is much better this year and the view which allows you to see the slide and video at the same time is help full. In past years I have kept the slide and the video up on two different widows. You may still want to have the slide available in another wind or put the full screen slide mode seems to provide enough resolution in most cases.

To the people who run the summer program thank you for making this material available. It would be great if we could extend the program to better incorporate those of us who are viewing on the WEB.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Sat Jul 09, 2011 6:50 pm

Statistics (Experimental Physics) (2/4)

Covariance and correlation art covered from yesterday. While it was not too hard to follow look forward to the example will make the discussion easier to follow. The next topic address a number of distribution this should be view as an introduction to these topics
Distribution/pdf Example use in HEP
Binomial Branching ratio
Multinomial Histogram with fixed N
Poisson Number of events found
Uniform Monte Carlo method
Exponential Decay time
Gaussian Measurement error
Chi-square Goodness-of-fit
Cauchy Mass of resonance
Landau Ionization energy loss

The meet of this lecture is The Monte Carlo method. A small fact that should have been presented earlier is that the end result of taking a Random 0<x<1 in an f(x) is not to just take use the values produce a corresponding F(X). But to use the F(X) function to select the subsets of x to be used.
I think that might be a place for a more practical application set of lecture on the use of the Monte Carlo and other particle generator codes.

Recommended If you are going to do simulations you need to have this lecture.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Tue Jul 12, 2011 4:10 am

Concepts in Particle Physics (3/5)

The lecture presents the mathematics behind the Standard model. It is probably the most intense lecture of any of the summer lecture I have viewed. If you can fellow it does a good job of explaining the development of the gauge theory. I seem that some introduction to material I have seen in other presentation would have helped.

Recommendation: If you already have a background this is excellent if not may want to skip and come back later.

Statistics (Experimental Physics) (3/4)

This probably the most important lecture in order to understanding what it takes to make a discovery in Particle Physic. There is an excellent discussion of p value and its conversion to sigma.
It also addresses several other issues that might affect the outcome. Basic math will get you thru this lecture.

Recommendation: This is a must for anyone who is trying to make any discovery with the data

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Fri Jul 15, 2011 1:02 am

Statistics (Experimental Physics) (4/4)
This lecture is a little less intuitive. However with some work can be followed. It covers Parameter estimation, Maximum likelihood and least squares, and Interval estimation (setting limits. The least squares fit will be easy for someone who has work with a real-time trending package like we use on the shuttle or even the Excel trend tool. The limit setting is a more advanced topic but it is key to all of these “we have excluded xxx” papers.

Recommendation: This is a must for anyone who is trying to make any discovery with the data. Overall takes a little work but well-presented and well worth the time. You cannot read any of the papers and know what they are talking about without exposer to this information

Standard Model (Theoretical Particle Physics) (1/6) by Rohini Madhusudan Godbole, (Centre for HEP, IIS, Bangalore, India) Currently at: Spinoza Institute, Univ. of Utrecht, Utrecht, The
Netherlands

In this set of six lectures I will try to give a simple overview of important elements of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The SM summarises our current understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter and interactions among them. I would outline how the knowledge about the fundamental constituents was arrived at, through studies of patterns in static properties of particles and by performing scattering experiments with high energy particle beams. I would then discuss how these patterns helped particle theorists decipher the symmetries (special properties) displayed by the laws which describe interactions of the constituents with each other. After a simple introduction to gauge symmetries and an even briefer statement about gauge field theories, I will focus on issues related to a gauge theory description of electro weak interactions, indicating various experimental discoveries, made mainly at colliders, which were crucial in establishing the SM as we know it today. I would try to point out how, at every stage, as our understanding of the underlying laws developed, in fact theorists ended up predicting newer particles (sometimes even their masses) and/or newer interactions, which were later discovered in the high energy experiments. This discussion will also lead us to an understanding of the special roles that the top quark (which has been found and studied to some extent at the Tevatron collider) and the Higgs boson (for which direct experimental evidence is still lacking) have in the SM. Then I will discuss how these important elements of the SM physics viz. Higgs production and decay as well as aspects of the physics of the top quark would be studied at the LHC. If time is left I will end by discussing different types of predictions for physics beyond the SM that the theorists make.

Just a general comment before I start my reviews the color and font choice on these slides does not work well for the video view. You may want to open the slides in power point and go to them when the reading gets hard.
The first lecture is in the form of a history lecture but only to show the logical progression from theory to discovery or discovery to theory. The real payoff is at the end with the discussion of quarks.

Recommendation. You will need some background in the standard model. Not a problem for the student in summer school. It is a hard two hours with this course followed by Concepts in Particle Physics. Good news Root in session 3 is more entertaining.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Sat Jul 16, 2011 10:16 pm

Concepts in Particle Physics (4/5)
This lecture is about Physic beyond the standard model. It is much more conceptual then the other lectures (understandable by a wider audience).This lecture focus on the decay of the Proton and it requirement to add an SU(5) term to the standard model. The important side light in an insight into to the world of theoretical Physic. That a lot of things are developed but only a few can stand up to test.

Introduction to the ROOT system (1/2) By Jan Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus, CERN research fellow since 2009

Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some form or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system.

Warning the slides on the video stop at 33 you must load the slides from the opening Page. ROOT is a very powerful set of tools based on C++. While you can write C++ code there are many short cuts and none of that makefile, H file and weird class method description require. In this year’s update ROOT presentation an excellent overview is provided that can get you working right away is you know most any program language. Also presented are how to use very powerful HEP programs.

Recommendation. Do not miss if you plan to do any programing in the HEP field or if you are interested in programing at all.

Introduction to the ROOT system (2/2)
The slides are fixed but the video does not show the screen where Jan Fiete is typing in too bad. The slides seem to have most of what he is doing. This lecture is more of a demo of how easy it is to do things in Cint and the ROOT Frame work. Many examples to help you thru the material

Recommendation. Do not miss if you plan to do any programing in the HEP field or if you are interested in programing at all.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Wed Jul 20, 2011 3:44 am

Standard Model (Theoretical Particle Physics) (2/6)
Continues with the history mostly of finding quarks. In the Neutron and proton. After the second lecture I have a much better idea of where she is going. Very interesting discussion of how electron scattering work and why you need more and more energy to see smaller objects.

Recommendation. You will need some background in the standard model. Not a problem for the student in summer school. I think I will mark the last two to come back to after I finish the whole summer program.

Concepts in Particle Physics (Theoretical Particle Physics) (5/5)

Boy you are going to have to work hard to follow this but in the end you will know what supper symmetry is all about. More importantly you will understand where we are going with LHC. The big why LHC.

Recommendation If you are interested in Supper Symmetry you need to work thru this lecture. If not move on.

Standard Model (Theoretical Particle Physics) (3,4/6)
I am writing this review together because this was really one lecture with a break. They focus on Symmetries and conservation laws. This results in a development of the various force in the standard model. This is very technical but still interesting.

Recommendation: A little much if you do not already have a background.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Sun Jul 24, 2011 9:50 pm

Accelerators and Beam Dynamics Dr. Bernhard Holzer (1/5)

After a review about the history and most important developments of particle accelerators, the presentation will give an introduction into the dynamics of single particles in a storage ring as well as the description of the beam as an ensemble of many particles. We will explain the techniques that we use to calculate the geometry of a large synchrotron (like the LHC) and we will consider the formalism that allows to obtain beam dimensions and dynamic properties under the influence of the magnetic fields. Nonlinear effects and space charge problems are briefly mentioned. In the end we will show examples of the LHC operation to convince the audience that these machines are running nevertheless!

The is a presentation on the development of accelerators up to LHC

Recommendation: If you are interested in how the accelator works this is the place. No really training needed

Detectors Dr Werner Riegler (1/5)

This lecture will serve as an introduction to particle detectors and detection techniques. In the first lecture, a historic overview of particle detector development will be given. In the second lecture, some basic techniques and concepts for particle detection will be discussed. In the third lecture, the interaction of particles with matter, the basis of particle detection, will be presented. The fourth and fifth lectures will discuss different detector types

Very nice lecture on the development of various detector systems. Presented in a very easy to follow style. It was eye opening to see all the discoveries that were made with very simple detectors.

Recommendation: A must for everyone.

Standard Model (Theoretical Particle Physics) (5/6)
This lecture wraps up what we know of the standard model. It makes a pitch for the Standard model to become the standard theory. It tries to tie everything together with just a few constraints. The next lecture is on the Higgs

Recommendation: Still a little hard to follow but if you want to understand the standard model this is it for this year. May want to look at past years.

Accelerators and Beam Dynamics Dr. Bernhard Holzer (2/5)

The lecture goes into the basic Magnets needed for the LHC. For the first time I am beginning to understand tune. Hope there is some more on the subject.

Recommendation: If you are interested in how the accelerator works this is the place. No really training needed

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Sun Jul 31, 2011 11:46 pm

Standard Model (Theoretical Particle Physics) (6/6)

This lecture could be called what we do not know. It makes a case for the Higgs and then present some other unanswered problems with the SM.

Recommendation: Interesting.

Detectors Dr. Werner Riegler (2/5)

In this lecture Dr. Riegler talks about the particles we want to detect. I have included his summary here.

Only a few of the numerous known particles have lifetimes that are long enough to leave tracks in a detector. Most of the particles are measured though the decay products and their kinematic relations (invariant mass). Most particles are only seen as an excess over an irreducible background. Some short lived particles (b,c –particles) reach lifetimes in the laboratory system that are sufficient to leave short tracks before decaying  identification by measurement of short tracks. Detectors are built to measure the 8 particles. Their difference in mass, charge and interaction is the key to their identification.

Recommendation: This is the foundation for understanding what the LHC is able to do.

Accelerators and Beam Dynamics Dr. Bernhard Holzer (3/5)
This lecture goes in to how the magnets are strung together. It also address that the beam is a bunch not just a single particle. This presents you with hard real world problems. How to you fit the bunch in the pipe.

Recommendation: As not lost me. You should be able to follow. If you are interested in how the accelerator works this is the place. No really training needed

Detectors Dr. Werner Riegler (3/5)

Now we find out how the various particles interact with the materials they travel thru at the level of the atom. This is a very good way of setting us up for the material to follow.

Recommendation: Learned a lot about the why of detectors. If you want to understand measurement error you need to understand this presentation.

Accelerators and Beam Dynamics Dr. Bernhard Holzer (4/5)

In this lecture we get to the core of operating an Accelerator. All that talk about single particles and ideal condition can be put aside. There are defocusing effects. Momentum changes. Integer tune to avoid in both x and Y. This is the good stuff that explains why they lose the beam so much.
$
Recommendation: Keep up you too can become an operator.

RocketManKSC
Posts: 40
Joined: Mon Mar 29, 2010 10:09 pm
Location: Titusville Florida

Re: Summer Schooll 2011

Post by RocketManKSC » Tue Aug 30, 2011 2:58 am

Electronics, DAQ (Experimental Physics), Dr. Niko Neufeld

Data acquisition is the process of getting the data from the detector to permanent storage. In these lectures we will cover the main elements of data acquisition systems, read-out electronics, data-links and switching networks and computers. Then we will go through the design of a DAQ for a modern large HEP experiment. Finally we will take a look at the DAQ systems of the 4 large LHC experiments

Electronics, DAQ (Experimental Physics) (1/3)

Mostly electronics, some triggering. This lecture is about the front end. It deals mostly with the analog electronics. The amplifiers, Shapers, Filters, Converters, and data compression are described. Issue of Bandwidth, rise time and signal to noise are addressed. Practical issues like cabling and radiation are also presented.
Electronics, DAQ (Experimental Physics) (2/3)

More electronics, basics of Data Acquisition. From a simple DAQ system to system that need 100,000 s of channel are presented. The tradeoff between direct connect, bus, and networks are shown. The concepts of time sync and trigger and presented.

Electronics, DAQ (Experimental Physics) (3/3)

Data acquisition at the LHC, odds and ends. The concepts of time sync and trigger and presented. Then the block diagrams for the four detector system are provided
Recommendation: This is a good set of lectures that are easy to understand. They provide the view with a look at the state of the Art data collection equipment at CERN. This is an intro and if you’re interested in more in depth treatment you will need more work. I liked it because of the similarities to the Shuttle Program and other very high speed programs I have worked on.

Post Reply